Beginning database design from novice to professional

Everyone keeps data. Big organizations spend millions to look after their payroll, customer, and transaction
data. The penalties for getting it wrong are severe: businesses may collapse, shareholders and customers lose
money, and for many organizations (airlines, health boards, energy companies), it is not exaggerating to say that
even personal safety may be put at risk. And then there are the lawsuits. The problems in successfully designing,
installing, and maintaining such large databases are the subject of numerous books on data management and
software engineering. However, many small databases are used within large organizations and also for small
businesses, clubs, and private concerns. When these go wrong, it doesn’t make the front page of the papers; but
the costs, often hidden, can be just as serious.